Present study addresses the question of the effects of the evidence based TANZPRO-Biodanza®-Program
(Stueck & Villegas, 2009, Stück, 2013) based on BIODANZA by Rolando Toro and Cecilia Luzzi (Toro,
2010). TANZPRO-Biodanza® is the nonverbal part of the School of Empathy concept by Marcus Stueck
(Stueck, 2013), which was developed in the project “Healthy Lifestyles in Kindergardens” of the Geman
Ministry of Health (2009 until 2011). Biodanza is a contact and motion-based intervention method
with auto-regulative claim on immune competence and the autonomic system of children of kindergarten
age. The evaluation took ten weeks. A TANZPRO®-Biodanza class with girls aged four to six was carried
out from September 2011 until December 2012. The immunological parameters immunoglobuline
A and testosterone as well as the autonomic heart rate parameters were collected before and after each
TANZPRO®-Biodanza sessions of the course as a process variable. Especially, the reduced testosterone
levels after the meetings in the saliva of children show positive effects of the method on the immune system.
The decrease of IgA levels after TANZPRO®-Biodanza in the saliva of children towards age norm
might be due to an immune regulative effect. The specific effects of TANZPRO®-Biodanza on heart rate
towards a mean level show improvement of physical autoregulatory processes.
Key words: auto regulative immune competence, empathy, Immuneglobuline A, TANZPRO®-Biodanza,

Pengembangan dan Uji Validasi Modul Tanzpro-Biodanza untuk SubjekAnak-Anak Indonesia

This study aims to validate the TANZPRO-Biodanza module developed by Stueck & Villegas in 1998. The original module was first validated in 1998 by Stueck, Villegas, Schroder, Terren, Toro, Sack, Balzer, Mazarella, and Toro. TANZPRO-Biodanza is part of the concept of the School of Empathy, a concept that integrates the concept of nonverbal communication from Martha Rosenberg and the TANZPRO-Biodanza biosentric paradigm from Rolando Toro. TANZPRO-Biodanza is a training that allows participants to experience the importance to feel and regulate of their emotions. This research used educational research design Borg dan Gall (dalam Simoneau, 2007). The subjects in this study were 10 boys and girls aged 9-10 years. Four TANZPRO-Biodanza sessions were given to children: Spain session, Egypt session, Tanzania session, and China session. Data collection uses observation and interviews. The module validating results showed that language translation is in good category (score 75 - 92.5 from the range of assessment scores 0-100). In addition, most sessions can be applied to the subject of Indonesian children. But there are still sessions that need to be adapted to Indonesian culture.


Abstract. The aim of this study is to investigate changes of 1st grade school children’s (age 6 - 7) emotional and social competences in TANZPRO-Biodanza intervention group. In total 22 sessions were carried out during the school year 2014 / 2015 - from the beginning of October, 2014 until the end of May, 2015. The Emotion Questionnaire (Rydell et al., 2003) parents’ version was used to evaluate emotional competence – emotionality and emotion regulation. Prosocial scale, Internalizing and Externalizing scale of The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, Goodman, 1997) parents‘ versions were used to measure social competence, i.e., prosocial behaviour and nonexistence of behavioural problems. Testing was performed in 3 time points – before intervention, after 10 sessions, and after intervention. Pre and post intervention results of social and emotional competence revealed different changes of experimental (n = 10) and control (n = 9) group pupils. Experimental group pupils showed statistically significant improvement in emotion regulation outcomes, prosocial and internalizing behaviour, but control group pupils showed decrease in emotion regulation outcomes and increase of internalizing behaviour. Both between-group and within - group analysis indicated, that internalizing behaviour results have most pronounced changes. Repeated measures ANOVA and Post hoc test with Bonferroni adjustment revealed statistically significant time effect for experimental group pupils (F(2,18)=4.81, p=0.02, η2=0.35) and tendency level with 90 % probability for control group pupils (F(2,16)=3.40, p=0.06, η2=0.30). Saliva cortisol showed decrease in pre and post levels, in some sessions achieving level of significance.
Keywords: dance, elementary school children, emotional competence, emotion regulation, intervention, saliva cortisol, social competence, TANZPRO-Biodanza.

Effects of a biodanza program in relation to physical and psychological parameters in Primary Education

Introduction: The aim of the study was to know the physical and psychological effects of a biodanza program in primary school children. Methods: Fifty-three students (boys and girls) from a public school located in the province of Huelva were selected for the sample. The students were divided into two different groups: a quasi-control group and a quasi-experimental one. Questionnaires were applied to all the participants at the beginning and at the end of the course in order to measure the psychological variables (self-esteem, emotional inteligence and life satisfaction). Several physical test was also applied to measure maximum consumption of oxygen and agility. Results: Results show significant improvement in self-esteem (t(53)=4.599; p< .001), emotional inteligence (t(52)=2.160; p= .035) and agility (U=-3.763; p< .001). For maximum consumption of oxygen and life satisfaction variables some improvements have been found, but they are not enough to be considered significant. Conclusions: These results suggest that a biodanza program in school children can be a good tool to improve the physical and psychological variables previously cited.

Los efectos de un programa motor basado en la biodanza enrelación con parámetros de inteligencia emocional en mujeres

This study analyzed the effects of regular practice of biodanza in
the level of perceived emotional intelligence (IEP), in its dimensions of perception,
understanding and emotional regulation, in 35 women of middle
age of a medium-humble socioeconomic level. To this end we applied the
TMMS-24 questionnaire. Biodanza program focused on emotions and basic
lines of experience. The obtained results show a statistically significant
increase in levels of IEP of the women in the experimental group, with
respect to the control group, after the application of the motor based on the
dance program, demonstrating higher values in the dimension of understanding
of emotions.

School of Empathy for EnhancingChildren’s Well being

This study was aimed to examine the effects of School of Empathy on emotional and psychological well-being on elementary school age children in one of the public elementary schools in Yogyakarta. The study involved 13 children aged 9-14 years divided into 7 in children experimental group and 6 in children control group. This study used quasi experiment design with control group with pre-test & post-test design. The instrument used in this study is the Indonesian version of the School of Empathy (SoE) module developed by Stueck et al. (2010) and the Emotional and Psychological Well-being Scale for Children adapted from The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (Liddle & Carter, 2015). Data analysis used parametric statistic independent sample t-test. The results showed that children's well-being score between the experimental group (M = 32.71, SD = 3.904) and control group (M = 33.83, SD = 4.956); (t (11) = - 0.456, p = 0.657), on the positive emotional state (t (11) = - 0.540, p = 0.6) and positive outlook (t (11) = - 0.305, p = 0.766). Effect size score of treatment (SoE training) on children's well-being (r = 0.136), positive emotional state (r = 0.160) and positive outlook (r = 0.091). The conclusion of this study is that no differences between the experimental group and the control group. SoE training has little effect on emotional and psychological well-being. The results of the study are discussed further.


This study aims to produce nonviolent communication module as part of the School of Empathy module
that can be applied to children in Indonesia along with required instruments. This study was a module
development research with Educational Research and Development design. Participants of this study were
elementary students and aged 9-10 years old. Instrument in this study was nonviolent communication –
School of Empathy Indonesia developed by Stueck. In addition, to see response of participants from module
implementation, we used observation guidelines and interview guidelines compiled by researchers. The
study was conducted in 3 days, with a total of 8 training sessions. This study was carried out in accordance
with stages in module development process. Based on result of the study, there were two important things
to be discussed, namely suitability of the module with the stages of child development based on results of
interview and observation, and assessment of child psychologist, also based on the findings during module
test process took place to participants. Results and limitations of this study are discussed further in this

Biodanza as Mirrored in the sciences: Research concerning the psychological, physiological and immunological effects of Biodanza.

Biodanza, a form of intervention intended to further health and well-being, originated in South American by Rolando Toro and encourages self-expression and self-management through music, dance and interaction. Since 1998, we have been investigating the influence of a 10-session Biodanza program on 150 subjects on various psychological (regulation of emotion, Health, Personal psychology) physiological (skin response, blood pressure) endocrinological (e.g. adrenalin, noradrenalin, cortisol) and immunological (e.g. Immunglobulin A, NK-cells, T-cells) variables. Initial results from the experimental-control-group study in Argentina and Germany reveal significant changes in psychological health and personality variables after 3 Months (Post 1). After a further 3 months without Biodanza, the effect could be seen to have stabilized. It could be shown that regular, long-term participation in Biodanza had positive effects on subjects’ experience and behavior. Concerning the immunological variables, the subjects showed a significant increase in Immungloblin A (IgA) after 6 of 10 sessions compared to the IgA-Level before the session. A increase of the Pre-IgA-level (measured before the sessiones) between the 1st and 8th-10th session was documented. This effects of the sessions went along with significant psychological improvements during each session (improvement of relaxation, activity, mood) compared to the control group (Aerobic). It could be shown that regular, long-term participation in Biodanza had positive effects on the experience, behaviour and biological regulation parameters of the subjects.

Biodanza and Yoga as bodyoriented interventions to reduce psycho-vegetativ tensions in teachers

The psychological stress of teachers is well documented. However, there are few evaluated intervention
tion programs specifically for this occupational group that aim to improve stress management. Two intervention
specifically for teachers (the stress reduction program with yoga elements and the exercise-oriented
self-regulation method Biodanza) are examined in the present study with regard to their effects on the sympathetic nervous system.
effects on the sympathicotonic activation level. As an indicator, the percentage of sympa-
thic activation states in the skin resistance during a 24-hour monitoring. The measurements
The measurements were taken before and after the 10-week intervention on the same day of the week. A test group 1 (VG 1)
group 1 (VG 1) with eight female teachers who completed the training program with yoga elements in 2000 and 2001.
solved. The experimental group 2 (VG 2) also consisted of eight teachers, who, however, used the psychological, dance-oriented self-regulation method Biodanz.
dance-oriented self-regulation method Biodanza. The results show a decrease of the psychophysiological
activation states in the 24-hour skin resistance monitoring after the 10-week intervention in VG 1 with an ei-
a high effect size (d'>0.8) and power (1-ß>0.8) in each case (yoga training, d'=1.28, power=0.98, p=0.4**) and VG 2
(Biodanza, d'=1.28, Power=0.98, p=0.11). This indicates a reduction in general tension, with the
vegetative working point from sympathetic tension states to increased parasympathetic relaxation states.
states is shifted in the long term. In addition, improved activity-relaxation synchronization of the ba-
sal Rest-Activity-Cycle (BRAC) as a result of yoga and biodanza, i.e. the participants reach their optimal activity level more easily after the two interventions.
terventions more easily reach their optimal activation and relaxation ratio of 67% activation pattern to 33% relaxation pattern.
pattern, which is an indicator of health. This finding shows that both yoga and biodanza are metho-
are methods with an autoregulatory effect. Thus, these two - in academic stress research new - interventions prove to be stress-reducing and
interventions as stress-reducing and health-promoting stress reduction methods. Because of the small
sample size, the present study has the character of a pilot study and should be continued by further investigations.
should be continued or repeated.

The limits of Biodanza

This article is about the question whether Biodanza, can incorporate the way of working of Online Biodanza into its concept or not? Online Biodanza was introduced during theCOVID-19 period, because as a result of the lockdown, it was forbidden for people to meet, e.g. in Biodanza classes. After the end of the COVID-19 period, Online Biodanzawas continued by some Biodanza teachers worldwide. From the point of view of this article, this is the limit of Biodanza, because the online version of Biodanza does not take into account certain requirements that the Theoretical Model of Biodanza specifies (e.g.,sensory reduction, time shift in the vivencia, lack of possibility to do certain exercises). Inaddition, some aspects do not go along with the visions of the founder Rolando Toro (e.g.regarding the political function of Biodanza teachers and regarding the omnipotence oftechnologies in the coexistence of people). The scientific analysis in this article is basedon interview statements of Rolando Toro and other experienced Biodanza teachers. As aresult, it can be stated that for some application in the context of Biodanza, online media are beneficial (e.g. for study groups, for theoretical discussions). However, workingdirectly with Biodanza in weekly classes, in school modules, workshops and extents andapplications it not possible. There are simply too many necessary conditions missing for implementation. The analysis also explores the reasons why Biodanza teachers are notopen to these arguments and still continue to work online. Among other things, the lackof self-reflection as components of autoregulation in the Theoretical Model and the lack of understanding of the visions of the founder of the method are pointed out here. The article summarises the risks of integrating Biodanza, Online Biodanza, without naming its contraindications, its limits. Biodanza, without these limits, destroys itself or loses its effectiveness. Biodanza-Online is at best as a digital encounter with elements of Biodanza,b ut it is not Biodanza.

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